Card, N. A., & Hodges, E. V. E. (2008). Peer victimization among schoolchildren: Correlations, causes, consequences, and considerations in assessment and intervention. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 451–461.
Carney, A. G., & Merrell, K. (2001). Bullying in schools: Perspectives on understanding and preventing an international problem. School Psychology international, 22(3), 364–382.
Černi Obrdalj, E., Beganlić, A., & Šilić, N. (2010). Vrste nasilja među djecom i osjećaj sigurnosti u školama Bosne i Hercegovine. Društvena istraživanja Zagreb, 19(3), 561–575.
Cixin-Wang, Berry, B., & Swearer, S. M. (2013). The Critical Role of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention. theory into Practice, 52(4), 296–302.
Cohen, J., Mccabe, E. M., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate : Research, policy, teacher education and practice. teachers College Record, 111(1), 180–213.
Cowie, H. (1998). Perspectives of Teachers and Pupils on the Experience of Peer Support Against Bullying. Educational Research and Evaluation, 4(2), 108–125.
Cowie, H., & Hutson, N. (2005). Peer support: A strategy to help bystanders challenge school bullying. Pastoral Care in Education, 23(2), 40–44.
Cowie, H., Hutson, N., Oztug, O., & Myers, C. (2008). The impact of peer support schemes on pupils’ perceptions of bullying, aggression and safety at school. Emotional and behavioural Difficulties, 13(March), 63–71.
Cowie, H., & Olafsson, R. (2000). The Role of Peer Support in Helping the Victims of Bullying in a School with High Levels of Aggression. School Psychology international, 21(1), 79-95.
Davis, J., & Wilson, S. M. (2000). Principals’ Efforts to Empower Teachers: Effects on Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction and Stress. Clearing House, 73(6), 349–353.
Dobrotić, I., Matković, T., & Zrinščak, S. (2013). Gender Equality Policies and Practices in Croatia - The Interplay of Transition and Late Europeanization. Social Policy and Administration, 47(2), 218–240.
Eyal, O., & Roth, G. (2011). Principals’ leadership and teachers’ motivation. Journal of Educational Administration, 49(3), 256–275.
Farrington, D. P., & Ttofi, M. M. (2009). Reducing School Bullying: Evidence-Based Implications for Policy. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, vol 38, 38(1), 281–345.
Flaspohler, P. D., Elfstrom, J. L., Vanderzee, K. L., & Sink, H. E. (2009). Stand By Me: The Effects of Peer and Teacher Support in Mitigating the Impact of Bullying on Quality of Life. Psychology in the Schools, 46(7), 636–649.
Grapard, U. (1997). Transition from Socialist Regimes. Journal of Economic issues, 31(3), 665–686.
Gregory, A., Cornell, D., Fan, X., Sheras, P., Shih, T.-H., & Huang, F. (2010). Authoritative school discipline: High school practices associated with lower bullying and victimization. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 483–496.
Hasanović, M., Sinanović, O., & Pavlović, S. (2005). Acculturation and psychological problems of adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina during exile and repatriation. Croatian medical Journal, 46(1), 105–115.
Hasanović, M., Sinanović, O., Selimbasić, Z., Pajević, I., & Avdibegović, E. (2006). Psychological disturbances of war-traumatized children from different foster and family settings in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croatian medical Journal, 47(1), 85–94.
Kasumagic, L. (2008). Engaging youth in community development: Post-War healing and recovery in bosnia and herzegovina. international Review of Education, 54(3–4), 375–392.
Kodrnja, J. (2002). Patrijarhalnost u hrvatskoj obitelji: briga ili dominacija. Sociologija Sela, 40(1/2), 155–180.
Kokkinos, C. M., Charalambous, K., & Davazoglou, A. (2010). Primary school teacher interpersonal behavior through the lens of students’ Eysenckian personality traits. Social Psychology of Education, 13(3), 331–349.
Kythreotis, A., Pashiardis, P., & Kyriakides, L. (2010). The influence of school leadership styles and culture on students’ achievement in Cyprus primary schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 48(2), 218–240.
Littrell, P. C., Billingsley, B. S., & Cross, L. H. (1994). The Effects of Principal Support on Special and General Educators’ Stress, Job Satisfaction, School Commitment, Health, and Intent to Stay in Teaching. Remedial and Special Education, 15(5), 297–310.
MacNeil, A. J., Prater, D. L., & Busch, S. (2009). The effects of school culture and climate on student achievement. international Journal of Leadership in Education, 12(1), 73–84.
Obrdalj, E. C., & Rumboldt, M. (2008). Bullying among school children in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina: Cross-sectional study. Croatian medical Journal, 49, 528–535.
Obrdalj, E. C., Sesar, K., Santic, Z., Klaric, M., Sesar, I., & Rumboldt, M. (2013). Trauma Symptoms in Pupils Involved in School Bullying - A Cross Sectional Study Conducted in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Collegium Antropologicum, 37(1), 11–16.
Oldenburg, B., van Duijn, M., Sentse, M., Huitsing, G., van der Ploeg, R., Salmivalli, C., & Veenstra, R. (2015). Teacher Characteristics and Peer Victimization in Elementary Schools: A Classroom Level Perspective. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(1), 33–44.
Pasalic Kreso, A. (2008). The war and post-war impact on the educational system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. international Review of Education, 54(3–4), 353–374.
Patton, D. U., Hong, J. S., Williams, A. B., & Allen-Meares, P. (2013). A Review of Research on School Bullying Among African American Youth: An Ecological Systems Analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 25(2), 245–260.
Pellegrini, A. D. (2002). Bullying , Victimization , and Sexual Harassment During the Transition to Middle School Bullying , Victimization , and Sexual Harassment During the Transition to Middle School. Educational Psychologist, 37(3), 37–41.
Pranjić, N., & Bajraktarević, A. (2010). Depression and suicide ideation among secondary school adolescents involved in school bullying. Primary Health Care Research & Development, 11(4), 349–362.
Pranjić, N., Brković, A., & Began. (2007). Discontent with financial situation, self-rated health, and well-being of adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Cross-sectional study in Tuzla Canton. Croatian medical Journal, 48(5), 691–700.
Rose, J., & Medway, F. (1981). Teacher locus of control, teacher behavior, and student behavior as determinants of student achievement. the Journal of Educational Research, 74(6), 375–381.
Rudolph, K. D., Lansford, J. E., Agoston, A. M., Sugimura, N., Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., and Bates, J. E. (2014). Peer victimization and social alienation: Predicting deviant peer affiliation in middle school. Child Development, 85(1), 124–139.
Rydell, A.-M., & Henricsson, L. (2004). Elementary school teachers’ strategies to handle externalizing classroom behavior: a study of relations between perceived control, teacher orientation and strategy preferences. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45(2), 93–102.
Saarento, S., & Salmivalli, C. (2015). The Role of Classroom Peer Ecology and Bystanders’ Responses in Bullying. Child Development Perspectives, 9(4), 201-205.
Salmivalli, C. (2010). Bullying and the peer group: A review. Aggression and violent behavior, 15(2), 112–120.
Salmivalli, C. (2014). Participant Roles in Bullying: How Can Peer Bystanders Be Utilized in Interventions? theory into Practice, 53(4), 286–292.
Santinello, M., Vieno, A., & De Vogli, R. (2011). Bullying in Italian schools: The role of perceived teacher unfairness. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 26(2), 235–246.
Swearer, S. M., & Doll, B. (2001). Psychosocial Correlates in Bullying and Victimization: The Relationship Between Depression, Anxiety, and Bully/Victim Status. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2(2), 7–23.
Twemlow, S. W. (2006). Teachers Who Bully Students: A Hidden Trauma. international Journal of Social Psychiatry, 52(3), 187–198.
Unnever, J. D., & Cornell, D. G. (2004). Middle school victims of bullying: Who reports being bullied? Aggressive behavior, 30(October 2002), 373–388.
- Abstract viewed - 175 times
- PDF downloaded - 127 times
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Department of management and Organization School of Economics and business at University of Sarajevo
How to Cite
VIolence begets violence: risk factors for bullying in postwar and postsocialist context
Vol 2 No 2 (2019)
Submitted: Jun 12, 2019
Published: Jun 12, 2019
The empirical evidence on bullying mainly comes from studies conducted in the established democratic societies. However, studies on risk factors, psychological and social consequences of bullying in postwar, postsocialist West Balkan countries are relatively scarce. We utilize Bronfenbrenner’s theory of social-ecological development in postwar, postsocialist context, aiming to review existing literature on complex interactions of actors within a child’s environment and their impact on bullying behavior. Apart from focusing on immediate influences of families and schools, we also aimed at extending our analysis by observing the interplay of micro-, meso-, exo- and macrosystem to identify broader environmental influences on bullying behavior among children in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina. Synthesis of findings from existing studies shows that although war ended in 1995, the macroenvironmental influences, resulting from changes imposed by postsocialist transition, ethnic tensions, segregation based on nationality and lack of consensus among politicians of three conflicted ethnical groups, create culture that perpetrates various forms of violent behavior in families, schools and society.